Frequently Asked Questions

Country Data related

We chose to put a minimum of $5,000 in these cases since for most business investments that would be the absolute minimum. Of course in some cases this amount will likely be higher or lower, depending on the country.  

For some visa options, especially with regards to retirement or passive income visas, the minimum amount per month required in order to apply for the visa is around the $1,000-$3,000 USD mark. We defined the minimum investment amount as being 1 month. Usually you need to prove that you have had this regular income stream for at least 3-6 months, but from the time of application looking into the future, you only need that monthly amount.

Another alternative would be to multiply that amount by 12 so it indicates the amount needed for 1 year or during the length of the residency permit, but that would make it seem like a much higher up front cost, which is not the case. 

Since most countries will allow citizenship by descent or ancestry from the 1st generation, we decided to not include those as being "Citizenship by Descent" countries. If your parents are from that country, 99% of the time you can obtain that citizenship as well. 

We decided to mark the Citizenship by Descent options as "Yes" for countries that allow citizenship going back 2 or more generations. 

If physical presence is not required, but it is a requirement for the path to citizenship or permanent residency, we will weigh that as more important and take that minimum number of days as the minimum presence requirement.

Some countries do not require you to renounce your other citizenships, but do not officially allow dual citizenship. In those cases we list them as "does not allow" as well, since in the future they might change this.


A good example are Chinese investors, who officially cannot have dual citizenship, but if they acquire the citizenship of a country that does not inform China about their newly acquired citizenship, they are still able to get a second or third citizenship. 


Other countries allow dual citizenship only under very specific circumstances. In those cases the "not allowed" has our preference, since it will be very unlikely for a random investor to qualify.

Most countries have student and marriage visa options. These do usually not require an initial investment but have other requirements. Since almost all countries have these options and a successful visa depends on other factors, we do not include these options.


We also do not include "work" visas, since these usually require previous employment at a company. We do include digital nomad visas, since these depend on a regular income stream and are open to literally anyone with a laptop and said income stream, with little additional requirements besides health insurance.


We made one exception for the UK skilled worker visa, since that is one of the most popular options after the UK Tier 1 investor visa was canceled, but technically this is a "work visa".

Even if dual citizenship is not allowed, but permanent residency would eventually lead to citizenship if desired, we still mention it. An applicant can be interested in a specific citizenship, regardless of the fact if the country allows dual citizenship or not. 

For data points that display N/A, it either indicates that we couldn't find any reliable data source for that metric, or that this is an unknown (like for example in the case of Average Agent Fees for some programs). In other cases this metric simply does not apply, for example agent fees will not apply for programs that only allow for direct applications through an official government channel by the main applicant personally.

In case you know about a data point that is missing and can send us source material to update our database, we would love to hear from you. You can send these metrics to info [at]


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